naphthalene diimide Based Small Molecule as Promising Nonfullerene Acceptor for Solution-Processed Organic Photovoltaics

Journal Reference

Advanced Energy Materials, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 12. 

 Yao Liu1,Lei Zhang1,Hyunbok Lee1,Hsin-Wei Wang1,Annikki Santala1,Feng Liu1,Ying Diao2,Alejandro L. Briseno1,Thomas P. Russell1

Show Affiliations

  1. Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Conte Center for Polymer Research, 120 Governors Drive, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
  2. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 213 Roger Adams Laboratory, 600 S. Mathews Ave., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA



A novel naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based small molecule (BiNDI) is designed and synthesized by linking two naphthalene diimide monomers via a vinyl donor moiety. The electronic structure of naphthalene diimide -based small molecule is carefully investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Density functional theory (DFT) sheds further light on the molecular configuration and energy level distribution. Thin film transistors (TFT) based on naphthalene diimide -based small molecule show a highest electron mobility of 0.365 cm2 V−1 s−1 in ambient atmosphere. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) by using naphthalene diimide -based small moleculeas the acceptor show a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.41%, which is the best result for naphthalene diimide-based small molecular acceptors. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD), and X-ray photo­electron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization to understand the morphology and structure order of the bulk heterojunction film are performed. It is found that small amount of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) (i.e., 0.5%) in the blended film facilitates the crystallization of naphthalene diimide -based small molecule into fibrillar crystals, which is beneficial for the improvement of device performance

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naphthalene diimide Based-Small-Molecule as Promising Nonfullerene Acceptor for Solution-Processed-Organic-Photovoltaics

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