Forest-based bioenergy policies in five European countries: An explorative study of interactions with national and EU policies

Forest-based bioenergy policies in five European countries: An explorative study of interactions with national and EU policies

Journal Reference

Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 80, Pages 102–113 (2015).

B.H. Lindstad1, T. Pistorius2, F. Ferranti3, G. Dominguez4, E. Gorriz-Mifsud5, 6, M. Kurttila7, V. Leban8, P. Navarro4, D.M. Peters2, S. Pezdevsek Malovrh7, I. Prokofieva5, A. Schuck3, B. Solberg1, H. Viiri6, L. Zadnik Stirn7, J. Krc7

Show Affiliations

1 Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway

2 Chair of Forest and Environmental Policy, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacherstrasse 4, D-79106 Freiburg i.Br., Germany

3 European Forest Institute – Central European Regional Office, Wonnhaldestrasse 4, 79100 Freiburg, Germany

4 Forest Sciences Center of Catalonia (CTFC), Ctra. de St. Llorenç de Morunys, km 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain

5 Forest Sciences Center of Catalonia (CTFC), Sant Pau Historical Site, St. Leopold pavilion, c/St. Antoni M. Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain

6 Natural Resources Institute Finland, P.O. Box 68, 80101 Joensuu, Finland

7 Universitiy of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, Večna pot 83, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

8 European Forest Institute – Mediterranean Regional Office (EFIMED), Sant Pau Historical Site, St. Leopold pavilion, c/St. Antoni M. Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain

 

Abstract

In this explorative study, we compare national policies affecting production and use of forest-based bioenergy in five European countries: Finland, Germany, Norway, Slovenia and Spain. Our methodological approach combines horizontal and vertical policy interaction with three policy layers: policy objectives, policy instruments and thematic elements in implementation. Great variations are found in national bioenergy policies, with complex interlinkages revealed to national renewable energy and forest policies (horizontal dimension) and to EU policies (vertical dimension). Horizontally, the national bioenergy objectives are closely linked to forest policy objectives and, in Finland, also to renewable energy objectives. Policy instruments promoting bioenergy demand interact to various degrees with both renewable energy and forest policies, while supply side instruments, as well as implementation aspects, interact most closely with forest policies. Vertically, highest degree of interactions with EU polices are in this study revealed for policy objectives and instruments, less so for implementation. It is concluded that consideration of policy layers are useful for increasing the understanding of the complexity in horizontal and vertical policy interactions, and thus an important basis for understanding how to minimize conflicts and enhancing synergies among multiple forest objectives. We argue that the chosen analytical framework can enhance the understanding of complex interlinkages between bioenergy and broader policy and market developments. Identifying these complex interactions can contribute to facilitate policy developments promoting and regulating future production and use of forest-based bioenergy, while taking other forest objectives into consideration.

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